Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is the processing and treatment with bituminous and/or chemical additives of existing HMA pavements without heating to produce a restored pavement layer (AASHTO, 1998[1]). It involves the same process of cold plant mix recycling except that it is done in-place by a train of equipment.

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A Chip seal or bituminous surface treatment (BST), also known as a seal coat or chip seal, is a thin protective wearing surface that is applied to a pavement or base course. BSTs can provide all of the following:

:: A waterproof layer to protect the underlying pavement.

:: Increased skid resistance.

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Patches are a common method of treating an area of localized distress. Patches can be either full-depth where they extend from the pavement surface to the sub grade or partial where they do not extend through the full depth of existing pavement .

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A slurry seal is a homogenous mixture of emulsified asphalt, water, well-graded fine aggregate and mineral filler that has a creamy fluid-like appearance when applied. Slurry seals are used to fill existing pavement surface defects as either a preparatory treatment for other maintenance treatments or as a wearing course. There are three basic aggregate gradations used in slurry seals:

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Crack seal products are used to fill individual pavement cracks to prevent entry of water or other non-compressible substances such as sand, dirt, rocks or weeds. Crack sealant is typically used on early stage longitudinal cracks, transverse cracks, reflection cracks and block cracks. Fatigue cracks are most often too extensive to warrant filling with crack sealer; they usually require an area treatment such as a patch or reconstruction. Crack filler material is typically some form of rubberized asphalt or sand slurry.

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A fog seal is a light application of a diluted slow-setting asphalt emulsion to the surface of an aged (oxidized) pavement surface. Fog seals are low-cost and are used to restore flexibility to an existing HMA pavement surface. They may be able to temporarily postpone the need for a surface treatment or non-structural overlay.

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